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標題: 《無常 Impermanence》
內容:

《無常 Impermanence》

無常,是所有我們看到的、聽到的和想到的事物本質。如果你花一點時間來觀察你人生中的事情,你會發現,每一天、每個小時,每一分鐘,乃至每一秒間,一切都在改變。無常不是一些新的東西,也不是由一些人創造出來。相反地,它就是生活的素質。一切存在的事物都會改變,這是不可否認的。

難以置信地,一切圍繞著我們的,都永遠無法維持不變。我們可能會看到一些東西,譬如說一輛汽車或一條流動著的河。它們看上去,似乎跟昨天沒有什麼不同,但在現實中,這些事物都是無時無刻地在改變。

無常的有兩個層次:(一)粗疏的無常(二)微妙的無常

「粗疏無常」是不難理解的,因為它是很容易被觀察到。例如,當我們掉下一只玻璃杯,它打碎了,這是「粗疏無常」的一個例子。另外,假設有人種下一顆種子,隨著時間的流逝,我們會觀察到種子的變化,它發芽、生長,並最終成長為一棵大樹。當我們看著這棵樹的時候,我們可能會說:「我種了那顆樹。」但很明顯地,這顆老樹跟我們當初種植的那顆種子,看起來是非常不一樣的!這種變化是不可否認的 - 它就在我們面前,讓我們可以看到和出作判斷。

第二種無常是「微妙無常」,是非常微妙(微細)也令人難以察覺的。它是指每分、每時無刻中所發生的微細變化,那是我們不會注意到,但實際上這是「粗疏無常」的基礎。「微妙無常」的例子包括我們心中那些細微的動靜、我們在每一刻中老化,或甚至一條河的流動。例如有一年,我們在一條特定的河中游泳,然後在明年,我再回去同一條河中游泳。我們可能會想:「去年我在這條河裡游泳。」然而,當我們認真地開始深入思考:去年我們曾在那裡游泳的河,已經不復再了。事實上,你在早上游泳的那條河,跟下午的它已經是不一樣。實際上,河流於每一秒中都在轉變!

無常和萬事萬物是分不開的。我們不能視一切為理所當然,因為沒有任何事情是可以預計到的。例如,今天某人可能是你的朋友,但明天他可能是你最大的敵人。相反地,你最大的敵人,在未來也有可能成為你最好的朋友。我們實在不知道接下來會發生什麼,因為一切都是無常的,而且會改變。此外,生、老、病、死是這個不斷變化的過程裡的一部分。總結來說,在這個宇宙之中,沒有一件事物或事情是永恆不變的,事實上,這就是一切事物的本質。

Impermanence is the nature of everything that we see, hear, and think. If you take some time to observe the things in your life, you will notice that day by day, hour by hour, minute by minute, and even second by second, everything is changing. Impermanence is not something new, nor was it created by someone. Instead it is a quality of life. It cannot be denied that to exist is to change.

It is hard to believe that everything that surrounds us never remains even for a second. We may see things such as a cars and flowing rivers and they might seem to be the same as the day before, but in reality these things are changing in each and every moment.

There are two levels of impermanence: (1) gross impermanence and (2) subtle impermanence.

Gross impermanence is something that is not so difficult to understand since it is easily observed. For instance, when we drop a glass and it breaks, this is an example of gross impermanence. Also, suppose someone plants a seed and week by week we can observe the change as the seed sprouts and grows eventually into a tall tree. When we look at this tree we might say things like, "I planted that tree," but obviously the old tree looks very different to the seed that was planted! The change is undeniable - it is right in front of us to look at and judge.

The second type of impermanence, subtle impermanence, is very subtle and harder for us to notice. It refers to the minute changes that occur moment by moment that we don't notice, but which are actually the foundation for gross impermanence. Examples of subtle impermanence include the subtle movement of our minds, our aging in every moment, or even the flowing of a river. When we swim in a particular river one year, and then we come back to swim in that same river the next year, we may think and say, “Last year I swam in this river.” However, when we really start to think deeply, the river we swam in last year is gone. In fact even the river you swim in during the morning is not the same as the river you swim in during the afternoon, and actually the river is changing every second!

Impermanence is inseparable from everything. We cannot take things for granted because nothing is predictable. For instance, today someone could be your friend, but tomorrow they could be your worst enemy. Also, your worst enemy may in the future become your best friend. We cannot really be sure about what is going to happen next because it is all impermanent and subject to change. Moreover, rebirth, old age, sickness, and death are part of this changing process. To sum up, there is nothing in this universe which is not impermanent, and indeed it is the nature of everything.

〜 蘇曼迦旺仁波切 Zurmang Gharwang Rinpoche